Human milk provides all of the nutrients required for a baby’s growth and development. Diarrhoea, pneumonia, ear infection, meningitis, and urinary infection are less likely in breastfed babies. Breastfed babies have a lower risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and allergic disease in adulthood. The primary components of milk from various species differ. Several significant differences in nutrient components were found between milk types, and these differences may affect the consumer’s composition and functional features.
Human milk contains 4.2 per cent fat, which is greater than goat or cow milk. The majority of the fats in human milk, goat milk, and cow milk are triglycerides, but the fatty acid compositions differ. Human milk contains long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA, and arachidonic acid, or ARA, which are not found in goat or cow milk. DHA and ARA are important components of the nervous system and the eye, and they are actively absorbed by these tissues.
Lactose is the primary carbohydrate in milk. Human milk has a higher lactose concentration than cow or goat milk. Furthermore, human milk is distinct in that it contains oligosaccharides, which prevent bacteria from adhering to the intestinal surface and thus reduce the risk of gastrointestinal infections.
Human milk contains far less protein than cow or goat milk, with 0.9 grammes per 100 millilitres. Human milk, on the other hand, has more balanced proteins that are easier to digest. This meets the baby’s specific protein needs while protecting the baby’s undeveloped kidneys from protein waste overload. Human milk is less allergenic because it lacks beta-lactoglobulin, an offending protein in cow milk-intolerant babies.
Human milk and goat milk both contain alpha-lactoalbumin, albeit in slightly different structures. Lactoalbumin in human milk is best tolerated, but individuals who are allergic to lactoalbumin in cow milk may be able to drink goat milk. Human milk also contains enzymes, growth factors, and immunoglobulins. These are protein molecules that aid in nutrient digestion and absorption, stimulate growth and development, and fight infections. Furthermore, the breakdown of the human milk protein casein in the baby’s gut produces casomorphin, an opioid-like substance that can affect the baby’s mood and behaviour.
- Vitamins And Minerals
Human milk contains all the vitamins and minerals necessary for the development and growth of a baby, except for vitamin D. If babies are exclusively breastfed, they must obtain vitamin D from the sun or from supplements. Cow and goat milk contains less iron and copper than human milk and the synthesis of red blood cells is dependent on these two nutrients.
The nutrients in all types of milk vary depending on diet, season, lactation stage, and individual. Breast milk contains more of these nutrients when the mother supplements it. Similarly, goat milk varies according to the season and animal feed. Goat milk is more nutritious in the winter and early spring when the early milk colostrum is produced than in the summer when milk production has finished. The quality of the feed has been shown to affect the fat composition, flavour, and quantity of milk produced.